Updated: Aug 28
Broccoli, also known as cabbage flower in Vietnamese, belongs to the species Brassica Oleracea L, in the Brassicaceae family. It originated from Europe. Broccoli has two types: white broccoli (cauliflower) and green broccoli.
The edible part of broccoli is the unopened flower head, which is tender and delicate, making it susceptible to weather conditions. The leaves and stems are commonly used as animal feed. In Vietnam, broccoli is grown year-round in regions with cool climates, such as Da Lat - Lam Dong, Moc Chau - Son La, Sapa - Lao Cai, or in the northern region during the autumn-winter and winter-spring crops.
Requirements for outdoor conditions of Broccoli in Vietnam.
The suitable temperature for nutritional growth is 23-250C at the stage of flower formation 17-200C. Plants prefer long-day light, in short-day conditions, the plant prolongs the growth period, the seedling period requires strong light, when flower formation needs soft and weak light. Humidity ensures enough humidity 70-80%, in conditions of low air humidity and high temperature, the flowers are small.
Cauliflower grows well on nutrient-rich, well-drained soil, pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5. Actively irrigated barefoot.
Early varieties and main season: Green F1: Thanh Hoa (VA.84), Green magic (VA.82), Green Paragon (VA.87), Innova (VA.80), Marathon (VA.Marathone), Green Roya ( VA86). Cauliflower F1: Snow Flower (VA.83),
The varieties used for main and late crops are cold-loving varieties: Incline (VA.89), (VA86), Invenger (VA81), VA80, VA.Marathone, VA.82, VA.198, VA.87.
Early crop: Sow from July to August, plant from August to September
Main season: Sowing September-October, sowing October-November
Now it is possible to plant new varieties in the Spring crop: Plant in January, harvest in April
Technical process of growing broccoli.
Land Preparation: Select agricultural land far away from industrial zones, hospitals, factories, etc. (avoid proximity to polluted water sources, factory wastewater, hospital wastewater). Clean the garden, remove plant residue from the previous crop, apply lime, and plow the land to a depth of about 20-25 cm. If necessary, treat the soil with Sincosin before plowing to minimize nematode infestation and evenly distribute Nebijin 0.3DP before plowing to reduce root swelling.
Planting and Care: Create wide beds of 120 cm with furrows, where the furrows are 15 cm deep and, during the dry season, the beds are 10 cm high. Plant the third row with a spacing of 30 x 35 cm, at a density of 55,000 plants per hectare. Plant in the afternoon and ensure sufficient watering to promote good root development. Use non-polluted water sources such as groundwater, clean spring water, and avoid using water from drains, stagnant ponds, or standing water for irrigation.
Irrigation: Green broccoli prefers moist conditions but cannot tolerate water logging. Therefore, provide adequate water and avoid over watering, which can negatively affect the root system. Water every two days with clean water, lightly moistening the soil without saturating it.
Flower Covering: is a necessary technique in broccoli cultivation. If not adequately covered, direct exposure to high temperatures and sunlight can cause the flowers to turn brown and lose their value. It is essential to cover the flowers to enhance the quality of the broccoli heads.
After approximately 45-50 days of planting, when the small inner leaves cross each other, indicating growth, and the flower buds have a diameter of 4-5 cm, cover the soil around the flower heads. If necessary, remove the lower leaves for better covering of the flowers.
Harvesting, Processing, and Preservation.
Broccoli is harvested when the flower heads are tightly closed and have a white or creamy-white color (for white broccoli). The optimal age for harvest is around 15-20 days after the flowers emerge.During harvesting, care should be taken to avoid crushing or damaging the broccoli heads. The frequency of harvesting depends on the variety and crop management conditions, typically occurring every 3-4 days. Clean plastic containers or baskets should be used for harvesting and sorting the produce, ensuring proper sizing and avoiding any damage or contact with the soil. Damaged or diseased produce should be removed, and it is important not to wash the broccoli before packaging, storage, or transportation.
The processing facility, equipment, materials, containers, and transportation vehicles must meet food safety and hygiene standards as prescribed. The quality of the water used for processing must meet the standards for domestic water as regulated by the Ministry of Health.
Before packaging, the older leaves, damaged leaves, and any contaminants should be removed, and the broccoli heads should be properly sorted and cleaned. Packaging should be done according to the specific requirements, with appropriate labeling to facilitate traceability.
Broccoli should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated area. During transportation, it is advisable to use multi-tiered trays or containers rather than stacking the produce, as this can help maintain temperature and prevent respiratory issues.
The harvested and processed broccoli is safe for consumption and can be sold in the market or used for further processing. It should not be stored or transported together with other commodities that may pose a risk of contaminating the product.
Broccoli Production in Vietnam.
The production of broccoli in Vietnam has experienced steady growth in recent years. Although still relatively new compared to other vegetables, broccoli cultivation has expanded in both quantity and quality. The major broccoli-producing regions in Vietnam include Ninh Thuan, Dalat, Bao Loc, and Da Lat Plateau in the Central Highlands. These areas provide suitable climatic conditions, such as cool temperatures and well-drained soil, which are favorable for broccoli cultivation.
Several factors have contributed to the growth of broccoli production in Vietnam. Firstly, the increasing awareness of the health benefits associated with consuming broccoli has fueled demand among Vietnamese consumers. Broccoli is recognized for its potential to boost immunity, promote digestive health, and contribute to overall well-being.
Secondly, the growing influence of Western cuisines and dietary habits has also contributed to the rise in broccoli production. As Vietnamese consumers become more exposed to international culinary trends, the demand for broccoli as a key ingredient in various dishes has increased.
Broccoli Consumption in Vietnam
The consumption of broccoli in Vietnam has seen a remarkable increase in recent years. Traditionally, Vietnamese cuisine heavily featured leafy greens such as bok choy and water spinach. However, with changing dietary preferences and an increasing interest in healthier food options, broccoli has found its way into Vietnamese kitchens.
Broccoli is now commonly used in stir-fries, soups, salads, and even traditional Vietnamese dishes like spring rolls. Its mild flavor and crisp texture make it a versatile ingredient that complements a wide range of flavors. Vietnamese consumers appreciate its vibrant green color, unique shape, and the added nutritional benefits it offers.
Growing broccoli successfully requires careful attention to detail and adherence to specific techniques. By selecting suitable varieties, preparing the soil, starting seeds indoors, and providing optimal growing conditions, gardeners can enjoy a bountiful harvest of this nutritious vegetable. With proper care, pest management, and timely harvesting, you can savor the flavors and benefits of homegrown broccoli. Get started on your broccoli-growing journey and reap the rewards of a thriving garden!