Updated: Aug 23
Peanut trees, also known as groundnuts or Arachis hypogaea, are annual leguminous plants that belong to the Fabaceae family. These plants have the ability to fix nitrogen in the soil, making them beneficial for crop rotation and soil improvement. In our country, in many provinces and cities, different varieties of peanuts are grown such as MD7 or L15, or L15… Thanks to the bountiful peanut crops, many people have improved their household economy.
However, in order to harvest large, high-yielding peanut crops, farmers need to adhere to the correct peanut growing techniques.
The characteristics of peanuts are herbaceous, short half-life. The height is only 3 to 100 cm tall, the stem splits apart at the base and develops branches as it grows. If planted and maintained properly, peanut trees will produce large crops each year.
Proper soil preparation is essential for the successful growth of peanut trees. Peanuts prefer well-drained soils with a pH range of 5.8 to 6.5. Start by clearing the land of any weeds or debris and then plow or till the soil to a depth of 8 to 10 inches. Incorporate organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, to improve soil fertility and structure.
The right time of year to plant peanuts.
Compared with riverside land:
In the Winter-Spring season, people need to program when the flood water has just receded, from November to mid-December of the solar calendar.
In the summer-autumn crop, people plant around April-May of the solar calendar, harvested before the flood season arrives.
Argument with the land:
In the winter-spring crop, farmers need to sow from November to December.
In the summer-autumn crop, farmers need to sow seeds at the beginning of the rainy season.
In the autumn-winter crop, if you plant at this time, you should plant in high soil for effective drainage.
Peanut trees are typically planted during the warm season when the soil temperature reaches around 68°F (20°C). Create furrows or ridges with a spacing of about 18 to 24 inches between rows. Plant peanut seeds at a depth of 1 to 2 inches, ensuring a spacing of 4 to 6 inches between individual seeds. It's important to water the soil immediately after planting to provide moisture for germination.
Providing Adequate Water and Nutrients.
Peanut trees require consistent moisture throughout their growth cycle. Adequate irrigation is crucial, especially during the flowering and pod development stages. It's recommended to provide approximately 1 to 1.5 inches of water per week, either through irrigation or rainfall. Additionally, applying balanced fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can help promote healthy growth and high yields.
Implementing Proper Pruning Techniques.
Pruning plays a significant role in shaping peanut trees and maximizing their productivity. Remove any weak or diseased branches to enhance airflow and reduce the risk of fungal infections. Additionally, thinning out excessive foliage can help channel nutrients and energy towards pod development. Prune the plants when they reach a height of about 6 to 8 inches to encourage branching and lateral growth.
Tips for taking care of peanuts after planting to help grow bulbs: After about 5 days from sowing, the seeds will grow, you need to conduct a seed check and reapply the seeds that do not germinate, the re-mileage will help maintain appropriate planting density. Before sowing seeds, people need to use weed control products 3 days before to minimize weeds overcrowding peanuts when the plants are young. Next, when the seedlings have about 6 leaves, they need to weed the second time. At this time, hand weeding can be combined with the use of suitable herbicides.
Protecting Against Pests and Diseases.
Peanut trees can be susceptible to various pests and diseases, which can significantly impact their growth and yield. Implementing integrated pest management practices is crucial to minimize the damage caused by pests such as aphids, thrips, and leafhoppers. Planting peanuts often encounters a number of pests such as gray worms, borers, aphids... with each type of farmer needing to have their own treatment. When the tree is attacked by gray caterpillars, often biting off the leaves or biting off the tree, people need to use CNX-RS spray to kill it. Additionally, practicing crop rotation and selecting disease-resistant varieties can help prevent diseases like leaf spot and root rot.
Harvesting and Storing Peanuts.
Harvesting peanuts at the right time is essential to ensure optimal bulb size and quality. Monitor the plants closely, and when the leaves turn yellow and begin to dry, it is an indication that the peanuts are ready for harvest. Carefully loosen the soil around the plants and gently pull out the entire plant. Shake off excess soil, and allow the peanuts to dry in a well-ventilated area for about two to three weeks. Once dry, remove the pods and store them in a cool and dry place to prevent spoilage.
Can peanuts be grown in other regions of the world apart from Vietnam? Are peanut trees resistant to drought?
Yes, peanuts can be grown in various regions with suitable climate conditions and soil types. However, specific cultivation practices may vary depending on the local environment. While peanut trees have some tolerance to drought conditions, they still require adequate moisture for optimal growth and yield. Irrigation is necessary, especially during critical growth stages.
By implementing the right techniques, farmers in Vietnam can achieve the growth of peanut trees with large bulbs and high yields. It starts with selecting the appropriate variety, preparing the soil adequately, and providing sufficient water and nutrients throughout the growth cycle. Proper pruning, pest and disease management, and timely harvesting and storage are also crucial factors for successful peanut cultivation. With careful attention to these techniques, farmers can enhance their peanut production and contribute to the agricultural prosperity of Vietnam.