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The Foundation of a Successful Crop of Vietnamese Potatoes Cultivation.

Updated: Aug 29, 2023

Vietnamese Potatoes are one of the most widely consumed and versatile vegetables. They belong to the Solanaceae family and are scientifically known as Solanum tuberosum. Growing a successful crop of potatoes requires a strong foundation based on several key factors. By understanding and implementing these crucial elements, farmers can optimize their potato cultivation and achieve favorable yields.

The Foundation of a Successful Crop of Potatoes Cultivation.
The Foundation of a Successful Crop of Potatoes Cultivation.

Plant Characteristics of Vietnamese Potatoes.

The potato plant is a herbaceous perennial with an erect stem that can reach up to 60 cm in height. It produces compound leaves that consist of leaflets, giving the plant a lush appearance. The leaves are an important part of the plant as they are responsible for photosynthesis, which enables the conversion of sunlight into energy.

Plant Characteristics of Potatoes.
Plant Characteristics of Potatoes.

Flowers: Potatoes come in various colors, including white, pink, red, blue, and purple. Their flowers are typically yellow in color. Potatoes are primarily pollinated by insects, particularly bees, which carry pollen from one plant to another. After flowering, some potato varieties produce green fruits resembling small green tomatoes, each containing around 300 seeds.


The most distinctive feature of the potato plant is its underground storage structures called tubers. These tubers are thickened stems that store essential nutrients for the plant's survival during unfavorable conditions. They come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, depending on the potato variety.

Potatoes contain a significant amount of toxic compounds called alkaloids, particularly solanine, which makes them unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from different seeds as opposed to planting using seed tubers. To obtain seeds from a potato, one can cut the fruit and soak it in water. The seeds will separate and sink to the bottom after soaking for a day. Any type of potato can be grown from various forms, including whole tubers or pieces of tubers. Some commercial potato varieties are not entirely produced from seeds (as these varieties may not flower well), but rather grown from tubers, leading to confusion between seed and seed tubers, which is referred to as "seed-borne disease."

Various Products Derived from Potatoes.

Various Products Derived from Potatoes
Various Products Derived from Potatoes

Potatoes are not just a staple food providing starch; they are also versatile and find usage in a myriad of products across different industries.

Potatoes are a key ingredient in a wide range of culinary delights. They can be transformed into numerous mouth watering dishes. From classic favorites like mashed potatoes, French fries, and potato chips to more gourmet creations, the culinary possibilities with potatoes are virtually endless.

Potatoes have also found their way into the realm of beauty and skincare. The natural enzymes and vitamins present in potatoes make them excellent for skin care applications. Potato slices or potato-based face masks can help reduce dark circles, puffiness, and blemishes, leaving the skin refreshed and rejuvenated.

Potatoes have been utilized for therapeutic purposes in traditional medicine. The presence of solanine in potatoes imparts medicinal properties. Solanine has been found to have pain-relieving qualities and can be used to alleviate abdominal pain, liver pain, joint pain, allergies, and even seizures. Extracts from potatoes are used in the preparation of health supplements due to their nutrient-rich profile. These supplements provide a concentrated dose of essential vitamins and minerals, promoting overall health and well-being.

In Vietnam, the planting of potatoes varies depending on the region and altitude.

In the Northern Delta region:

  • Early Spring Crop: Usually in the midlands, planting starts in early October, and harvesting is done in December.

  • Main Crop: This crop is grown throughout the region. Planting takes place in late October to early November, and harvesting is done in late January to early February.

  • Spring Crop: Mainly found in the Red River Delta, planting begins in December, and harvesting is done in early March.

In the Northern Mountainous region:

Low mountain areas (<1000m above sea level):

  • Winter Crop, planting starts in October, and harvesting is done in January.

  • Spring Crop: Planting takes place in December, and harvesting is done in late March.

High mountain areas (>1000m above sea level):

  • Late Winter Crop: Planting begins in early October, and harvesting is done in January.

  • Spring Crop: Planting starts in February, and harvesting is done in May.

In the North Central region:

  • There is only one crop, which is the Winter Crop. Planting starts in early November, and harvesting is done in late January.

In the Central Highlands (Lam Dong province):

  • Main Season Crop: Harvesting extends throughout the dry season, from December to May.

  • Off-Season Crop: Harvesting occurs during the rainy season, from early June to November.

These planting schedules take into account the specific climate conditions and altitude variations in different regions, ensuring optimal growth and productivity of potatoes. Farmers follow these timeframes to maximize yields and meet the demand for this versatile and widely consumed vegetable in Vietnam.

Potatoes have a relatively short growth period, typically taking 85-90 days to be ready for harvesting.

Potatoes are highly productive, with average yields ranging from 18 to 22 tons per hectare. Planting potatoes in the winter crop season can result in significantly higher income compared to other vegetables, with returns 2-3 times higher. One of the valuable advantages of potatoes is their excellent storage capability. If not sold immediately or if there are leftovers, they can be stored at home for an extended period without spoiling, as long as the potato skins remain intact.

Potatoes are easy to grow and do not require high cultivation skills, making them accessible to anyone interested in cultivation.

Potatoes have a relatively short growth period, typically taking 85-90 days to be ready for harvesting.
Potatoes have a relatively short growth period, typically taking 85-90 days to be ready for harvesting.

Currently, there are several popular potato varieties in Vietnam, such as Atlantic, Diamont, Marabel, and Solana. However, it is recommended to grow two particular varieties - Solara and Marabel from the Federal Republic of Germany. These two potato varieties have a growth period of fewer than 90 days, offer high yields (up to 22-25 tons per hectare), and produce delicious, aromatic, and tender tubers.

Potato plants are susceptible to various pests and diseases, including gray weevils, spider mites, potato leafhoppers, aphids, wireworms, leaf curl, and leafroll viruses. To prevent and manage these issues effectively, it is essential to regularly inspect the fields and promptly identify any signs of pests or diseases. If any of these issues are detected, it is advisable to seek guidance from the plant protection department at the local Agricultural Services Center for the most effective prevention measures.

Harvesting should be done after approximately 85-90 days of planting. During harvesting, it is recommended to sort the potatoes by size, separating the large and small ones into different containers gently. All the potatoes should be kept intact without peeling the skins and placed in baskets. Store the potatoes in a cool, dark, dry, and well-ventilated area to ensure extended preservation.

Potatoes have a relatively short growth period
Beyond being a beloved culinary delight, potatoes prove to be a valuable resource in diverse applications. From satisfying our taste buds with delectable dishes to contributing to sustainable energy solutions, potatoes continue to leave a significant impact on multiple industries. Furthermore, their use in traditional and modern medicine highlights their importance in promoting human health and wellness.


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